A number of parameters, including psychological and psychosocial variables, clearly play a role in determining response to biological treatments such as pharmacotherapy. Factors related to a good response to tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine and amitriptyline include upper socioeconomic class, insidious onset, anorexia, weight loss, middle and late insomnia, and psychomotor disturbance. Poor prognosis with tricyclic antidepressants may be indicated by neurotic, hypochondriacal, and hysterical traits; multiple prior episodes; and delusions.
It is important to note, however, as Otto (Capsules – Cápsulas – Gélules) observed, that the attempt to match biological interventions to biological disruptions has been largely unsuccessful; that is, the fact that depression is related to certain biological abnormalities does not necessarily mean that biological treatments are the most effective way to treat the disorder, and the reverse is also true (i.e., psychological abnormalities may be best treated with biological therapies).
In sum, despite identifying certain factors at least weakly predictive of treatment response to cognitive-behavior therapy and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), research that differentiates re-sponders to pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is lacking (see Miller purchase Amitriptyline online, for a noOrder Amitriptyline online US exception). Thus, an important direction for future research will be to distinguish individuals who respond better to one form of treatment than the other, then apply the appropriate therapy. This [Buy Amitriptyline 10, 25, 50 mg Tablets] would theoretically result in more efficient and probably more effective treatment. The notion that matching patient variables to corresponding treatment modalities will produce better outcomes has intuitive appeal, but it remains to be seen whether it is pragmatically effective. Therefore, until a relation between patient characteristics and likely treatment response is empirically established, combined therapy appears to be the most effective form of treatment, as it has a wider range of coverage than either therapy administered singly.
Another benefit of combined therapy for depression is its coverage of different times during the course of depression. For example, drugs may produce quicker responses than psychotherapy, but psychotherapy may reduce the rate of relapse. Thus, combined therapy leads to a quicker response rate than psychotherapy while also reducing the risk of later recurrence of the disorder. The course of the disorder is more completely covered by combined therapy than either of the two therapies singly. Of course, maintenance pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy would have similar time coverage but would increase the cost, time, and potential adverse effects associated with continued therapy. We are of the opinion that, if combined therapy administered over a relatively brief period can be as effective (and perhaps more effective) than either therapy administered indefinitely, combined therapy is the treatment of choice.
Disadvantages of Combined Treatments
One drawback to applying combined therapy to the treatment of depression is the addition of adverse side effects incurred by drug (when drug is added to psychotherapy). The experience of drug side effects not only causes the patient discomfort but also decreases the likelihood of treatment adherence and increases the risk of premature termination of treatment (e.g., McElroy, Keck, & Friedman 12.5, 15, 37.5, 7 5 mg Tablets (Capsules)). Finally, the issue of overdose is always a necessary concern when administering drugs to depressed individuals in an outpatient setting.
The addition of psychotherapy to a pharmacological treatment plan, compared to pharmacological treatment alone, increases the amount of time spent by both patient and therapist. This is especially the case if the patient must go to a physician for drug checkups and to a psychologist or other nonmedical therapist for psychotherapy sessions. In today’s time-driven environment each additional component of therapy may be viewed as a drawback by patients and third-party payers alike.
Issues of cost become more salient when treatment plans are expanded. This area needs little elaboration, as the addition of either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy will lead to increased costs to both patient and third-party payers. Again, this issue is complex, because it is possible that long-range cost may be lower for combined therapy than the other two forms of treatment. Certainly, combined therapy is the most expensive option during the acute treatment phase, but it may be cheaper over the course of many years if it is more effective in preventing relapse and recurrence.
[Buy Amitriptyline 10, 25, 50 mg Tablets]
Analytical Limitations of Combined Treatment Studies
A number of potential limitations arise when aggregating data from multiple studies (as has been done in this cheap Amitriptyline), and these must be considered when synthesizing the results of diverse studies. We discuss below a few of the most relevant limitations to our review of combined treatment research.
First, a number of the studies reviewed have lacked adequate statistical power to detect differences between the various forms of therapy used. Studies with small cell sizes of individuals receiving different treatments lack power to find true and significant effects of the treatments being investigated. A larger statistical problem occurs when attempting to measure additive effects of two relatively equipotent treatments. Because adding two equally effective treatments together is not likely to double the treatment effect size, interactive effects, although important, may be dismissed as nonsignificant. This becomes a major issue in the analysis of Order Amitriptyline OTC, because most studies have found psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy to be in general of equal potency in treating depression. Finally, combined treatment studies will require numerous cells and large sample sizes to detect significant differences, making such investigations costly and difficult to perform.
Even though the treatments used in depression studies have previously been shown to be effective (as mentioned earlier), the possibility of a placebo effect still threatens the validity of treatment outcome findings in this area. Unfortunately, only two new studies reviewed here (Reynolds, Frank, Amitriptyline 150, 200, 250, 300, 500 mg Tablets (Capsules); Reynolds, Miller, Amitriptyline 150, 200, 250, 300, 500 mg Tablets (Capsules)) included a placebo control group in assessing the results of combined therapy. Hence, it is possible that some of the conclusions drawn from these studies would have been quite different if control groups had been included and treatment groups had not differed significantly from control groups.
In addition, variations across studies in the dosages and durations of therapies present a problem in drawing conclusions in combined-treatment research. Studies included in our review vary in length of psychotherapy sessions provided to patients from only 4 weeks (Bowers purchase Amitriptyline online) up to 3 years (Reynolds, Miller, Amitriptyline 150, 200, 250, 300, 500 mg Tablets (Capsules)). Considerable variations also occurred in the relative dosages of antidepressants. This may be in part attribuOrder Amitriptyline online US to uncertainties regarding the most effective dosage of drugs. Doses less than maximally effective are often used in order to minimize potential side effects and risks associated with the drugs. Consequently, a large percentage of patients may be “undertreated” in regard to the most effective level of drug. Certain researchers (e.g., Hollon Amitriptyline 50 mg Tablets (Capsules)), however, experimented with higher dosages in an attempt to maximize treatment effectiveness. The large variability in dose ranges encountered in such studies limits generahzability and limits the findings of systematic reviews of pharmacological interventions.