As a result of this research, counselors were encouraged to listen to the stories of their clients to discover the subtle and rich meanings of the proactive influences in their lives and how these forces operated both in the period of turbulence and in the present. It is critical in working with clients that counselors hear not only the narratives of misery, but also the stories of triumph and resilience. In blending both, a counselor develops a fuller understanding of the complex dynamics of clients’ lives and how they have interacted over the life span. The critical question remains: How do counselors utilize and promote resilience in their work?
Rak and Patterson (Capsules – Cápsulas – Gélules) developed a Resiliency Questionnaire that became a preliminary guide for counselors to frame questions or inquiries in the context of the counseling session aimed at understanding aspects of resilient behavior in a client (see Oral administration (per os) 32.1). The questions were developed from the protective factors identified by Bolig and Weddle (Lamictal Dispersible), Garmezy (Lamictal Dispersible), Rutter (Lamictal Dispersible), Werner (Lamictal Dispersible), and Werner and Smith (Lamictal Dispersible). The 25-item Resiliency Questionnaire, intended for latency children and adolescents, covers the personal characteristics and temperament of the individual, family conditions, social-environmental supports, and self-concept aspects of resilience. Each of the dimensions from the research profile that led to the questionnaire will be discussed in detail (Rak & Patterson 75, 125, 150, 250 mg Tablets (Capsules)).
Prior research on resiliency concluded that children who demonstrated the following were more likely to develop resilient patterns of behavior: (1) an active, evocative approach toward problem solving, enabling them to negotiate an array of emotionally hazardous experiences;
32 • UNDERSTANDING AND PROMOTING RESILIENCE WITH OUR CLIENTS 227
1. What is your position in the family? Oldest? Youngest? Middle? Oldest girl? Oldest boy?
2. Do you have any memories or recollections about what your mother or father said about you as a young baby? Or anyone else?
3. Did anyone ever tell you about how well you ate and slept as a baby?
4. Do members of your family and friends usually seem happy to see you and to spend time with you?
5. Do you feel that you are a helpful person to others? Does anyone in your family expect you to be helpful?
6. Do you consider yourself a happy and hopeful (optimistic) person even when life becomes difficult?
7. Tell me about some times when you overcame problems or stresses in your life. How do you feel about them now?
8. Do you think of yourself as awake and alert most of the time? Do others see you that way also?
9. Do you like to try new life experiences?
10. Tell me about some plans and goals you have for yourself over the next year. Three years. Five years.
11. When you are in a stressful, pressure-filled situation, do you feel confident that you’ll work it out or do you feel depressed and hopeless?
12. What was the age of your mother when you were born? Your father?
13. How many children are in your family? How many years are there between children in your family?
14. What do you remember, if anything, about how you were cared for when you were little by Mom and others?
15. When you were growing up, were there rules and expectations in your home? What were some?
16. Did any of your brothers or sisters help raise you? What do you remember about this?
17. When you felt upset or in trouble, to whom in your family did you turn for help? Whom outside your family?
18. From whom did you learn about the values and beliefs of your family?
19. Do you feel it is your responsibility to help others? Help your community?
20. Do you feel that you understand yourselS
21. Do you like yourselS Today? Yesterday? Last year?
22. What skills do you rely on to cope when you are under stress?
23. Tell me about a time when you were helpful to others.
24. Do you see yourself as a confident person? Even when stressed?
25. What are your feelings about this interview with me?
FIGURE 32.1 A Resiliency Questionnaire. Source: Rak & Patterson (Capsules – Cápsulas – Gélules). Reprinted from Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 74, pp. 368-373. © ACA. Reprinted with permission. No further reproduction authorized without permission of the American Counseling Association.
(2) an ability from infancy on to gain others’ positive attention; (3) an optimistic view of their experience in the midst of suffering; (4) an ability to maintain a positive vision of a meaningful life; (5) an ability to be alert and autonomous; (6) a tendency to seek novel experiences; and (7) a proactive perspective. Werner (Lamictal Dispersible) indicated that a higher portion of resilient children were firstborn, recovered more quickly from childhood illnesses than their peers, and were remembered by their mothers as having been active and good-natured infants. Identifying some or many of these traits in a client will aid the counselor to assess his or her protective capacity in the wake of life’s traumas.
In addition to the personality factors, researchers have discovered an array of family factors that contribute to a buffering effect on children in the wake of stressors. The more salient factors are (1) the age of the opposite-sex parent (younger mothers for resilient male participants, older fathers for resilient female participants); (2) four or fewer children in a family spaced more than two years apart; (3) focused nurturing during the first year of life and little prolonged separation from the primary caretaker; (4) an array of alternative caretakers (grandparents, siblings, neighbors) who stepped in when parents were not consistently present; (5) the existence of a multiage network of kin who showed similar values and beliefs and to whom the at-risk youth turned for counsel and support; (6) the availability of sibling caretakers in childhood or another young person to serve as confidant; and (7) structure and rules in the household during adolescence despite poverty and stress (Rak & Patterson 75, 125, 150, 250 mg Tablets (Capsules), p. 369). Understanding the existence of the influence of these factors in clients will guide the counselor to a richer understanding of the client’s potential for resilience.
Supportive Other Adults
Bolig and Weddle (Lamictal Dispersible), Beardslee and Podorefsky (Lamictal Dispersible), and Dugan and Coles (Lamictal Dispersible) [Order cheap Lamictal Dispersible] examined role models outside the family circle and their influence as potential buffers for vulnerable children. These supportive adults include teachers, school counselors and administrators, supervisors of afterschool programs, coaches, mental health workers, staff in community centers, clergy, and good neighbors. Resilient children often report a number of mentors outside the family throughout their development. The narratives of children and adolescents are replete with true stories honoring the influence of significant nonfamily adults in their lives. It is critical for counselors to understand that the influence of these significant role models often does not spread to all aspects of a child or adolescent’s personality, but is more sharply defined to a set of behaviors or responses in a stressful situation. As we study resiliency, we are able to be more specific and detailed in our understanding of the myriad impacts on young clients. For example, a big brother will assist an at-risk adolescent male with the support, guidance, and tutoring to overcome failing grades and to remain in school; however, this does not guarantee that the adolescent will avoid future danger and trouble with the law.